Cornerstones Topic 2 - Blood Heart
· Human blood is red due to a substance called haemoglobin. Haemoglobin contains iron which gives blood its red hue.
· Squids, octopus and snails have blue blood. This is due to them having haemocyanin in their blood which binds to copper instead of iron!
· The study of the human heart and its various disorders is known as ‘cardiology’.
· The heartbeat (lub-dub) is the sound produced by the closing of valves in the heart preventing blood from flowing backwards.
· The first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa in 1967 by Dr Christiaan Barnard.
· The blue whale has the largest heart of any living creature: it can weigh over 680 kg and is the size of a small car!
· Be kind to your heart! Research information and plan ideas for a weekly menu of food that your heart would love. Spinach, porridge, blueberries, salmon and soya protein are all heart-healthy.
· Find out about the historical tradition of Valentine’s Day. Why are hearts traditionally used as symbols of love?
· Find out about the size and structure of a human heart and compare it to the size, structure and number of hearts in other animals. (Worms have five!)
· Find out about the different pulse points on the human body including the side of the neck (carotid), wrist (radial), top of the thigh (femoral) and elbow crease (brachial). Test the different pulse points – which one has the strongest pulse?
Cornerstones Topic 1 - Revolution
Facts - Did you know?
· In Victorian England, classes were huge. There were sometimes more than 100 children in every class!
· Teachers often beat children using a cane, a long stick usually made from birch wood. Boys were usually caned on their backsides and girls were either beaten on their bare legs or across their hands. A child could receive a caning for all sorts of reasons, including rudeness, leaving a room without permission, laziness, telling lies and playing truant.
· Children as young as six regularly carried out dangerous tasks, such as clearing blockages on spinning frames in mills.
· All Victorian rocking horses were grey with dappled markings and the tail and mane were made from real horsehair.
· Until the 1890s, when microscopes proved that microbes and bacteria caused diseases, most people believed that illness was caused by bad odours.
· The Victorian era was a great time for inventions. The telephone, radio, flushing toilet, camera, adhesive postage stamp, railway train, vacuum cleaner and sewing machine were all invented by Victorians!
Bonus Homework Ideas
· Find out about health and medicine in Victorian times, including the ghastly and deadly diseases like typhoid, smallpox, influenza and cholera. It was pretty grim!
· Find out about significant women of the Victorian era, such as Mary Seacole, Florence Nightingale, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (the first English woman to qualify as a doctor), Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot (whose real name was Mary Ann Evans) and Mrs Beeton.
· Make some simple Victorian recipes, such as Apple Charlotte, Banbury cakes and custard patties. Create a recipe book using photos of your own creations.
· Find out about life as a child worker in factories and coal mines or as chimney sweeps and scullery maids. Write a ‘Day in the Life of a …’ diary entry and add your own illustrations.